According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, prostate cancer is the second most common cancer amongst American men after skin cancer. It mostly happens after they cross 50 years of age. The prostate is a walnut-size gland that secretes the seminal fluid in the male reproductive system. With age, the size of the gland increases. Cancer occurs when cells in or around the prostate grow abnormally in size and shape. Most prostate cancer grows slowly with no significant symptoms until it reaches an advanced stage.
Most prostate cancers are associated with an increased level of PSA (Prostate-Specific Antigen level). This cancer is classified according to the type of cells involved in cancerous growth.
Adenocarcinoma, also called glandular prostate cancer, is the most common type of prostate cancer that accounts for more than 95% of cases. Adenocarcinomas develop from the uncontrolled growth of the epithelial lining of the prostate gland and are further divided into two sub-categories:
Acinar adenocarcinomas are the most common subtype of prostate cancer. This subtype is easier to detect during the digital rectal exam, as the abnormal growth of cells occurs in the back of the prostate near the rectum. It also elevates the level of Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA).
It is a rare and aggressive form of adenocarcinoma. It develops from ductal and tubal cells lining the prostate gland. It is harder to detect and rarely increases the level of Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA).
Transitional Cell Carcinoma is a rare type of prostate cancer. Malignancy starts from the urethra or bladder and later spreads to the prostate.
It develops from nerve and prostate gland cells and releases hormones into the bloodstream. It doesn't produce PSA.
It is the fast-growing type of prostate cancer that starts in the round cells of the neuroendocrine system.
Squamous cell carcinoma is an aggressive and rare form that develops in cells covering the glands. It is a form of prostate cancer where cells surrounding the prostate gland spread quickly.
Prostate sarcoma grows in the soft tissue of muscles and nerves outside the prostate gland.
According to the American Cancer Society, the early stages of prostate cancer are asymptomatic. The prostate gland's deep location prevents the growing tumor from spreading to nearby organs. Advanced prostate cancer may cause these symptoms:
Most prostate cancer cases respond to treatment as cancerous prostate cells grow slowly. Your prostate cancer surgeon will decide the best prostate cancer treatment after examining, screening, and diagnosing the tumor in the prostate gland.
Active surveillance may be recommended if a prostate cancer specialist concludes that the cancer is asymptomatic and unlikely to increase. Prostate cancer is closely monitored by regularly conducting PSA (Prostate-Specific Antigen) tests and biopsies, and it is treated when it grows or causes symptoms.
Prostate cancer surgery, also called radical prostatectomy, includes the removal of the prostate and some nearby lymph nodes. It is performed in those cases where cancer has not spread beyond the prostate.
High energy radiations are used to kill cancerous cells during radiation therapy for prostate cancer. Radiation can be delivered via an external machine (external radiotherapy) or by surgically placing small radioactive pellets in the prostate gland (brachytherapy).
Hormone therapy, also called androgen suppression therapy, reduces the levels of male sex hormones (androgens), which nourish the abnormal cells. Prostate cancer hormone therapy shrinks cancer and is usually combined with surgery and radiotherapy.
Chemotherapy uses anti-cancer drugs injected intravenously or administered orally, which then enter the bloodstream and reach and destroy rapidly growing cancer cells.
Immunotherapy treatment is used to treat advanced prostate cancer, which uses a specific protein to enhance the patient's immune system cells' ability to target and destroy abnormal cells.
For a definitive diagnosis of prostate cancer, various methods are used after the initial screening. Your primary health care provider may refer you to a prostate cancer surgeon for further screening and testing for an accurate diagnosis.
The digital rectal exam is a simple procedure where a prostate cancer doctor inserts a lubricated, gloved finger into the patient's rectum to check for any abnormal growth of the prostate. DRE is used as a diagnostic and screening procedure to detect prostate cancer.
Prostate-specific antigen is the protein produced by the prostate gland. Elevated blood levels of PSA may suggest prostate cancer but could also indicate benign conditions like prostatitis (inflammation of the prostate) and prostate enlargement (benign prostate hyperplasia).
Biopsy is the primary tool to confirm or rule out prostate cancer diagnosis. A sample of prostate tissue is surgically removed and investigated under a microscope to establish the nature of the disease. Perineural invasions in biopsy indicate that cancerous cells have invaded and are growing along the nerves and represent a significant risk of cancer spreading out of the gland.
Transrectal ultrasound is a sonogram performed by inserting an instrument called a probe into the rectum. High-energy sound waves that bounce off the prostate create an ultrasound image of the prostate.
The prostate cancer doctors at ACTC, Florida, are dedicated to providing exceptional patient care by prescribing effective personalized and evidence-based treatment plans for their patients. We strive to establish a positive environment for patients and their families throughout their cancer journey focusing on physical and mental health simultaneously.
The following are our providers who you can consult at ACTC:
If you or a loved one has been diagnosed with prostate cancer, a frantic internet search for a ‘prostate cancer doctor near me’ may not be the best option. A detailed discussion with your primary physician would help you understand your condition better. Your pcp can then refer you to an advanced specialty center such as ACTC in Florida.
As one of Florida's advanced prostate cancer centers, we understand how a cancer diagnosis and therapy impact a person's physical and emotional well-being. Therefore, we work hard to make patients and their families feel secure. We understand that no two clinical cases are the same, and we strive to provide comprehensive treatment for all forms of prostate cancer at ACTC, staging, treatment, and long-term follow-up, all in one convenient location. Our prostate cancer specialists are backed up by qualified clinical staff with over two decades of experience and a reputation for providing personalized treatment.
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Increased age, African American ethnicity, family history of prostate cancer, obesity, and a diet high in saturated fats increase the risk factors of having prostate cancer.
Prostate cancer can be detected early by checking the blood level of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in blood. The digital rectal examination also helps in early diagnosis.
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the most common side effects of prostate cancer treatments are: urinary incontinence (leakage of urine), erectile dysfunction, and bowel problems are the common side effects of prostate cancer treatments.
According to the American Cancer Society, there are no specific measures for prostate cancer prevention. But some lifestyle changes such as increased physical activity, avoiding red meat, sugar-sweetened beverages, and processed food may help in reducing the risk of prostate cancer.